In the distant past there were no modern technologies of construction. But definitely ancient masters knew some secrets. How else could they have achieved so incredible results in erecting majestic and perfect structures?

So let’s take a look at some powerful castles and fortresses which have been protecting their inhabitants for centuries.

Moorish castle in Gibraltar. It was built on a rock in 711 A.D.

Moorish castle in Gibraltar

Photo: By James Cridland from London, UK (The Moorish Castle), via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 2.0)

Moorish castle in Gibraltar

Photo: By Prioryman, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Rumeli Hisari fortress in Istanbul, built between 1451 and 1452

Rumeli Hisari fortress in Istanbul

Photo: Jorge Franganillo/flickr (CC BY 2.0)

Rumeli Hisari fortress in Istanbul

Photo: Joseph Kranak/flickr (CC BY 2.0)

 

Castle and fortress Dover is the largest fortification in England. Both the castle and the fortress today look the same as after the construction in the XI century

Castle and fortress Dover

Photo: By Chensiyuan, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 4.0)

Castle and fortress Dover

Photo: pixabay.com (CC0 Creative Commons)

 

Murud-Janjira Fort, India. It was built on an island at the end of the XVII century and has survived up to the present day almost intact

Murud-Janjira Fort

Photo: Ishan Manjrekar/flickr (CC BY 2.0)

Murud-Janjira Fort

Photo: Vikas Rana/flickr (CC BY 2.0)

Prague Castle, IX century. Now is the official office of the President of the Czech Republic

Prague Castle

Photo: pixabay.com (CC0 Creative Commons)

Prague Castle

Photo: By Steve Collis from Melbourne, Australia (Prague Castle), via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 2.0)

 

Tower of London, which gives its name to the famous castle, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078

Tower of London

Photo: By Bob Collowân, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Tower of London

Photo: By Rafa Esteve, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

 

The citadel of Aleppo was under construction from 944 till 957 A.D.

The citadel of Aleppo

Photo: By Bernard Gagnon, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

The citadel of Aleppo

Photo: By Bernard Gagnon, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Fort Bourtange in Netherlands was built in 1593 under the orders of William the Silent. This star fort is home for about 300 people

Fort Bourtange

Photo: By nl:Gebruiker:Bourtange (nl:Afbeelding:Luchtfoto bourtange.jpg), via Wikimedia Commons (CC-BY-SA-3.0)

Fort Bourtange

Photo: piotr iłowiecki/flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0)

 

Caerphilly castle is the biggest fortification in Wales and the first one with concentric walls in Britain. Its construction lasted over three years since 1268

Caerphilly castle

Photo: David/flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Caerphilly castle

Photo: Rum Bucolic Ape/flickr (CC BY-ND 2.0)

 

Old castle in Ankara, Turkey

Old castle in Ankara

Photo: By Bernard Gagnon, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Old castle in Ankara

Photo: By Bahatur, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Spiš Castle, Slovakia. This old castle lies in ruins, but still attracts thousands of tourists every year

Spiš Castle

Photo: By Scotch Mist, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 4.0)

Spiš Castle

Photo: pixabay.com (CC0 Creative Commons)

 

Mehrangarh Fort is located in Jodhpur, Rajasthan. It was built in 1458 and now is one of the most popular touristic attraction of India

Mehrangarh Fort

Photo: Güldem Üstün/flickr (CC BY 2.0)

Mehrangarh Fort

Photo: Dan/flickr (CC BY-SA 2.0)

 

Krak des Chevaliers is one of the most important preserved medieval castles in the world

Krak des Chevaliers

Photo: By Xvlun, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.5)

Krak des Chevaliers

Photo: By Bernard Gagnon, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Conwy castle was built between 1283 and 1289. Now it is one of the best preserved medieval castle of Europe among those located in Wales

Conwy castle

Photo: Mike Shields/flickr (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Conwy castle

Photo: Denis Egan/flickr (CC BY 2.0)

 

Fort Douaumont is a French fortress that played the key role in one of the battles of WWI. This fortification was the biggest and the most perfect one by the end of XIX-beginning of XX century

Fort Douaumont

Photo: By Laika ac from UK (Fort Douaumont), via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Fort Douaumont

Photo: By Wolfgang Staudt from Saarbruecken, Germany (Verdun Fort Douaumont), via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 2.0)

 

Above the enchanting city of Toledo stands the imposing Alcázar. Its first fortifications date back to the III century

Alcázar

Photo: santiago lopez-pastor/flickr (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Alcázar

Photo: By Retrucado, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Edindurgh castle is a symbol of this Scottish city and its oldest building

Edindurgh castle

Photo: maxpixel.net (CC0 Public Domain)

Edindurgh castle

Photo: pixabay.com (CC0 Creative Commons)

 

Now we are in Poland, where you can see magnificent Malbork castle. Its construction started in 1274

Malbork castle

Photo: By DerHexer; derivate work: Carschten, from Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Malbork castle

Photo: Leszek Kozlowski/flickr (CC BY 2.0)

 

Königstein Fortress in Saxon Switzerland, Germany. This complex consists of 50 buildings. Some of them were constructed 400 years ago!

Königstein Fortress

Photo: By Fritz-Gerald Schröder (Fritz-Gerald Schröder), via Wikimedia Commons (CC0)

Königstein Fortress

Photo: Aidas U., via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY 3.0)

 

Lets conclude with the modern interpretation of the fortress

underground operations center for the NORAD in Cheyenne Mountain

Photo: CMAFS – N/A (public domain)

underground operations center for the NORAD in Cheyenne Mountain

Photo: By USAF photo., via Wikimedia Commons (Public domain)

This is the underground operations center for the NORAD in Cheyenne Mountain (Colorado).

Based on: curioctopus.guru